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Recommended Standards
for Canoe Trippers
at Summer Camps
June 15, 2002.

Steve Tripp
originally edited by Dana Clarkson
Special Thanks to Richard Harvey for his ongoing input and support for this paper.

“Many people say their connection with the outdoors began at summer camp and
their time spent leading trips helped form their foundation of outdoor skills.”
Joanna Baker, in Rapid Mag.

Thank-you to all who contributed in some respect to this paper through E-mails and/or
conversations: Travis Allison, Dana Clarkson, Matt Dunkin, Bruce Dunning, Ben
Freeman, Jeff Friesen, Mary Garvin, John Giardi, Richard Harvey, Koraley Houghton, David H.
Johnston, Kathy Pedersen, Dale Shaw, Jen Snyder, and Glen Pugh.

*The infromation on this page is taken from Ontario Organizations*



TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
ISSUES FACING TRAINING
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATIONS

Appendix A: OCA GUIDELINES
Appendix B: Comparison Chart
Appendix C: ORCA Lakewater I
Appendix D: ORCA Moving Water I
Appendix E: ORCA Canoe Tripping I
Appendix F: ORCA Canoe Tripping II
Appendix G: ORCA Flatwater Instructor
Appendix H: NLS
Appendix I: WILDERNESS FIRST-AID
Appendix J: SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
 


INTRODUCTION
It is generally understood by organizations involved in wilderness tripping that sufficient training and education on the part of trippers is crucial to the success of the program.  This is not only an issue of safety and liability, but also one which addresses the quality of a tripping program and the fullness of the wilderness experience offered to its participants.

In the spring of 1999 Richard Harvey, a Master Canoe Instructor, represented Canoe Nova Scotia at the Canadian Recreational Canoe Association (CRCA) Moving Water Symposium in Ontario.  I asked him to teach a CRCA River Rescue class to a group of friends from the summer camp world.  First it was educational with respect to river rescue, and secondly it was helpful for us as trippers from different backgrounds to exchange ideas on tripping. A third benefit, for those of us in the Inter-Varsity world, was a chance for different IV workers to talk about campus and camp work. The 2 day course involved staff from Ontario Pioneer Camp (OPC) Outdoor Education, OPC summer staff, Varsity Christian Fellowship (VCF), Inter-School Christian Fellowship (ISCF), and some supporters.

At the Spring ‘99 River Rescue Course, and in conversations with staff from other camps, the topic of industry standards come up frequently.  In addition, the apparent lack of training at camps is a common theme. After struggling to organize tripper or guide training for Spring 2000, I thought it would be helpful to research the accepted industry standard for wilderness trippers/guides at summer camps in Ontario/Canada to see whether training should be pursued.

It is hoped that this paper will create an awareness of the need for tripper/guide training, and a means by which it can be accomplished.  This is crucial not only for the safety and success of the programs, but also because we believe that as Christians we have an added responsibility to do all things with excellence.  This includes our tripping endeavours.

The following is a summary of my research into 'industry standards' for tripper/guide qualifications in Ontario, and some conclusions I have drawn from the research and recommendations based on those conclusions.  Included in the Appendices are the descriptions of the qualifications, and guidelines, and with the use of the internet, links.


ISSUES FACING TRAINING:

Most organizations struggle with three significant issues when examining tripper/guide training programs:

 1. The lack of longevity of tripping staff
 2. The cost of training
 3. The time required to train staff
These problems are outlined here and solutions will be dealt with in the Recommendations later.

1. THE LACK OF STAFF LONGEVITY:

Most summer camp staff are students in high school, college or university.

 1) Students do not have access to sufficient funds for training.
 2) Students are only involved short-term at camp because of the high costs of post-secondary education and the need to have higher paying summer jobs to finance that education.
  3) Students are involved at camp while they are young, but leave camp to get work experience in their specific field of interest to increase their hiring potential later.


2. THE COST OF TRAINING:

Investing in staff costs money, and it is not cost effective to invest in an employee who may only be around for a summer of two.  Most organizations do not have the capital to pay for short-term staff training.

Reasonable training through conventional means would cost:
 
COURSE COST BONUS
NLS $200.00
ORCA/CRCA Canoe Tripping 2 $300.00*
ORCA/CRCA Moving Water 1 $250.00
ORCA/CRCA Lakewater 1 $250.00
Wilderness First Aid (2 days) $200.00 4 day WFA - $400
ORCA/CRCA Flatwater Instructor *bonus*
$500
Total $1200.00 $2100.00
* Assumes participant already has certification for Lakewater 1 and Moving Water 1.
*note* These prices are on the low end of the spectrum.  These prices also do not include the cost of material participants might require for taking the course, like maps, food, lodging, PFDs, rental of equipment, transportation, etc.

see In-House training for additional comments on training costs

3. TIME REQUIRED TO TRAIN STAFF:

The length of time it takes to train staff is a significant factor if done through conventional means of taking all the courses.  Students not being geographically centralized, makes off-season training difficult to coordinate, and the summers are full with programs.

Reasonable training through conventional means would take:
 
COURSE TIME 
NLS 6 days
Canoe Tripping 2 5 days
Moving Water 1 3 days
Lakewater 1 3 days
Wilderness First Aid 2 days
Flatwater Instructor
5-6 days
Total 19 days 



CONCLUSIONS:

The importance of training is something that is understood by many organizations.  The question of what constitutes adequate training is the issue at hand, and is an area where organizations differ, sometimes radically.

What constitutes a trip? Is a day paddle around a lake considered a trip and required to meet the standards or is an over night needed to constitute a trip. Is it considered a trip any time you leave the waterfront area at camp where canoe instruction is being given?  Should there be different standards for short and long trips? For the purposes of this paper, a trip is defined as an overnight stay away from the base camp or longer.  The Ontario Camping Association defines a trip as "longer than 5 days and more than 8 hours from assistance."

For reasons already mentioned, it is difficult to raise tripping standards in an established  organization, especially if there have not been any injuries.  It is surprising how fast things change after people are injured or die.  There are sometimes situations where serious injury or death could not have been avoided.  However, improving the experience, qualifications and maturity of our trippers can significantly lower the risk of accident.

It appears from the research that all organizations are working with similar standards and acting in good faith, but that doesn’t help if someone gets hurt. Camps specializing in wilderness tripping have higher standards than camps that do not.  Christian camps have lower standards than other camps.

Part of any waiver agreement is that we will take reasonable steps to keep people’s children safe.  The lack of trained staff may jeopardize the safety of campers.
 


RECOMMENDATIONS:

It would be advisable to establish a wilderness-tripping standard that reflects the excellence toward which we strive as Christians.  A reasonable standard could include the following, in which all tripping staff should be qualified.  For some qualifications like Swimming, either the Assistant Leader or the Trip Leader should have their NLS.  The goal is to have a complete package between the two leaders.
 
Overnight
Trip Leader Assistant Leader
18 years old 17 years old
NLS Bronze Cross
Tripping Experience
First-Aid
*If moving water is a factor, there should be sufficient training.
**If out of site of camp, First-Aid should be from a wilderness context.
 
 
2-4 Days
Trip Leader Assistant Leader
18 years old 17 years old
NLS Bronze Cross
CT2 CT1
Wilderness First-Aid (WFA)* First-Aid
Spiritual Direction** Flatwater D
Previous Experience
* 4 day Wilderness First-Aid recommended.
** Facilitation skills to introduce participants to Creation
*note* Assistant leader needs to have skills to get group out if leader should be incapacitated.
 
 
4 days +
Trip Leader Assistant Leader
19 years old 18 years old
NLS Bronze Cross
CT2 CT1
Advanced WFA* First-Aid
Spiritual Direction Flatwater D
1 year trip leading experience Moving Water 1**
Moving Water 2**
* Wilderness First-Aid Responder highly recommended.
** If Moving Water is a factor

Summer camps rely a lot on volunteers and sometimes these volunteers come from the community.  There are people in the community who have advanced skills in wilderness travel and are very competent to guide a trip, but do not have formal training.  In this case certificaiton could be waived, but someone must have a current NLS.

By making the above a priority we will make our programs safer, loose less gear, and extend the life of tripping gear, and we will be able to offer an enriching tripping experience.  We can also strengthen our programs by building partnerships with other organizations.  If organizations work together on training, training can be done at an affordable rate, by utilizing staff with instructor training.

To achieve these standards we need to:

Stress Importance of Training
Raising the tripping standard will take a commitment from all camps involved to educate their staff with respect to the importance of training.  It will also take a commitment to make training opportunities available, and also inform them of training opportunities available in the community.

Although risk management is an important component of tripping programs, it is not the only one.  Trippers also have a responsibility to offer a quality program that includes: wilderness skills, the ability to answer questions pertaining to our environment (i.e. bird sightings, plant and animal life), and the added responsibility of responding to creation and stewardship appropriately.  If trippers are unaware of these components, or have yet to be educated as to their importance, they are unlikely to engage in training, especially if it is inconvenient.

Benefits to Trained Staff
One of the benefits could be an increase in pay or honorariums for qualified staff. Qualified staff could also be rewarded with more adventurous trips, and participants would also benefit in this, increasing the quality of our programs!  A camp should ask their staff what they would like as compensation for their work and seek to accommodate.

We also need to stress the value of experience of being a wilderness guide and it’s marketability.  The skills learned as a wilderness guide are not just about tripping. The people skills learned are helpful in the board room or the factory floor are just some examples.
 

In-House Training
There are 2 ways to do in-house training

1. One of the ways that training can be offered at an affordable rate over the long term is to train some long-term camp staff at the instructor level. By doing this, a camp will be able to offer more training in-house.  As mentioned, it costs approximately $1200 to train a tripper with basic skills by conventional means.  If a camp has six trippers on staff, it would cost over $7200 to train them the first year.  This expense would be for as long as those trained would be on staff, but with the turn-over of summer camp staff, this is an on-going expense.   It might cost a camp $3000/year in staff training by conventional means.

However if a camp were to train three staff as instructors in each discipline, those instructors could then offer training to as many staff as required for however long the instructors would be affiliated with the camp.  This is an enormous cost-savings with respect to both canoeing and wilderness first-aid skills.

If a staff member is sent on an instructor's course, the camp is paying for the course, course expenses, wages, and someone to cover for them in their absence.  So $1100 for a Canoe Tripping Level 2 Instructor's course, and $800 in wages + expenses...  the course will cost over $2000.  If the Instructor leaves staff, then you have to spend another $2000+ to train another employee.

While teaching a course at camp, the camp will be paying their wages, and someone to cover for them.

2. A camp could contract an outside instructor to come in for a short period of time to do the training for the camp.  A fresh approach can be beneficial to the camp.  Outside insturctors would cost between $100-$200 depending on their experience, which might be equivilant to the cost of a camp employee's wages.   In this respect contracting is very cost effective.

To train 6 staff by contracting an instructor to come in for 8 days of intensive training @ $200/day would cost $1600.  That works out to $266/tripper.  The additional expenses of equipment, food, and transportation should also be anticipated in the overall costs.

Working Together
We need to work together and help each other out as a community.  There does not seem to be a lot of communication between camps with respect to tripping.  We need to cooperate, at a grassroots level.  By working together and cooperating we also cross-pollinate which makes us all stronger.

*Something to note in the debate of contracting from the outside and having onsite Instructors.  It is very economical to contract an instructor and partner with another camp to split the costs.
 
Final Comments
I do not believe the insurance industry is familiar with wilderness travel programs and therefore are not demanding a higher standard from their clients.  If an accident were to happen they will investigate and find their clients are operating below an industry standard and therefore will be liable and they will absolve themselves of responsibility.  If the insurance companies do know but do not act, then they are liable.  I think it is important for us to be proactive.

For further comments or discussion, please 'click on the pic' and send me an E-mail.

This paper is a working document!

For a working document on Risk Management


Appendix A

Ontario Camping Association
Guidelines For Wilderness Travel Program with Resident Camp
revised January 1990

EXPLANATION
A Wilderness Travel Program (WTP) may be offered as an identity within itself or as an adjunct of an established camp.  The program consists of an autonomous self-reliant group responsible for its own food and shelter, travelling through wildlands by means of the following forms of primitive travel: back-packing; hiking; mountaineering; rock climbing; canoeing; kayaking; rafting; or horseback riding.

WTP may also apply, in some cases to programs offering wilderness travel as part of their camping experience.

The duration of the program is a minimum of five nights and at times may be more than eight hours away from assistance.

The location of the program involves a setting which provides a wildlands experience. The physical location of that setting changes, however, with the individual and the season.  The prime characteristics are a limited degree of concentrated settlement (i.e. beyond the rural or cottage country landscape) and a need to be self-reliant.

Items in red type indicate MAJOR Standards.

QUESTIONS


LEADERSHIP EXPLANATION
The minimum requirement for the lifeguard on the trip is a Bronze Medallion. A Bronze Cross or equivalent is suggested where water is involved.

A trip plan should include names of participants, route, points of medical access, anticipated camp sites, and contingency plans. Several copies should accompany the trip.

The pre-trip research includes: total mileage; location of campsites, portages; water quality; special equipment requirements; fragile nature areas; communication points; access points; transportation arrangements; rapids rating, degree of difficulty of route; leased or private lands; Indian rights; climate; physiography; map references; patrols and emergency procedures.

QUESTIONS

HEALTH AND SANITATION EXPLANATION

The first aid kit should contain sufficient supplies and equipment to handle most emergency situations and instruction for handling emergencies and illness.  The amount and type of supplies will vary with the length of time away and available assistance.

QUESTIONS

CHOOSING AND MAINTAINING THE SITE
QUESTIONS


EQUIPMENT
QUESTIONS


Appendix B
Ontario Recreational Canoe Association

Comparison Chart


Safety
Lakewater 1
Moving Water 1
Canoe Tripping 1
Canoe Tripping 2
review of previous safety items
*
 
*
swimming and treading water
*
*
*
*
retrieving a swamped canoe
*
*
*

canoe over canoe rescue
*
*
*
*
line toss and rescue
*
*
*
*
communications
*
*
*
swimming in rapids
*

*
AR from a canoe
 
*

 
 
Skills
Lakewater 1
Moving Water 1
Canoe Tripping 1
Canoe Tripping 2
Pivots
*



Sideward displacement
*



Circles
*



reverse and forward straight lines
*



Landings
*
*


Trianglar course in wind
*
 

Slalom course
*
 

Portaging
*
*
*
*
Eddy turns
*


Peel out
*


S turn
*


Front Ferry
*


Back Ferry
*


Side Slip
*


Front Surf
*


Side Surf
*


Lining, tracking, and wading
*

*
Food and menu planning

*
*
Navigation

*
*
Knots, hitches, lashing... 

*
*
Canoe trip

*
*

 
 
Theory
Lakewater 1
 Moving Water 1
Canoe Tripping 1
Canoe Tripping 2
Canoeing heritage
*
*
*
*
Canoe design and construction
*
*
*
*
Canoeing dynamics
*
 
 
Canoeing First-Aid
*
*


Canoeing resources
*
*
*

Canoe outfitting
*


Moving water principles
*


River Reading
*


Trip planning
*


Canoeing history


*
Canoe repair and maintenance

*
*
Wilderness First-Aid


*
Weather interpretation

*
*
Trip planning, reporting, and assessment

*
*
Trip leadership


*
Risk Management


*
Crisis Management


*


Appendix C


OVERVIEW OF ORCA LAKEWATER LEVEL I

Lakewater Level 1 is designed to perfect tandem paddling skills and continue the development of solo paddling skills.
LAKEWATER LEVEL 1

Lakewater Level 1 is designed to perfect tandem paddling skills and continue the  development of solo paddling skills.
 

PREREQUISITES:

SAFETY
Swimming & treading water
Retrieving swamped canoe
Canoe over canoe rescue
Self rescue
Line toss and rescue

SKILLS
Pivots
Sideward displacement
Circles
Reverse & fwd straight lines
Landings
Triangular course in wind
Slalom course
Portaging

THEORY
Canoeing heritage
Canoe design & construction
Canoeing dynamics
Canoeing first-aid
Canoeing resources


Appendix D

OVERVIEW OF ORCA MOVING WATER LEVEL I
Moving water Level 1 provides an introduction to whitewater paddling for those with little or no experience in whitewater.  Emphasis is on tandem and solo canoeing skills, understanding whitewater principles, and safety.

PREREQUISITES:

SAFETY
Swimming & treading water
Canoe over canoe rescue
Self rescue
Line toss and rescue
Communications

SKILLS
Entering & exiting canoe
Landing
Eddy out
Peel out
S turn
Front ferry
Back ferry
Side slip
Front surf
Side surf
Portaging
Lining, tracking, and wading

THEORY
Canoeing heritage
Canoe design & construction
Canoe outfitting
Whitewater principles
River reading
Trip planning
Canoeing first-aid
Canoeing resources


Appendix E

CANOE TRIPPING LEVEL 1 - TRIP PARTICIPANT
Canoe Tripping Level 1 provides an introduction to canoe tripping for those with little or no tripping experience. Emphasis is on wilderness canoe camping skills and safety.

 Overview Of Level 1

Prerequisites

SAFETY
Swimming and treading water
Retrieving a swamped canoe
Canoe over canoe rescue
Self rescue
Line toss and rescue
Communications

SKILLS
Canoeing
Food and menu planning
Packing
Navigation
Campsites and shelters
Fires and stoves
Knots and lashings
Portaging
Canoe trip

THEORY
Canoeing heritage
Canoe design and construction
Trip planning
Canoe tripping gear
Clothing and personal effects
Tools and repair kits
Canoeing first aid
Weather interpretation
Environmental practices and concerns
Canoeing resources



Appendix F


OVERVIEW OF ORCA LEVEL II CANOE TRIPPING - TRIP LEADER

Canoe Tripping level 2 (the trip leader) provides the experienced canoe tripping with the opportunity to improve his/her canoe tripping skills under more challenging conditions. Canoe Tripping level 1 skills are reviewed and expanded upon; new skills and theory are introduced to enhance the leadership ability and potential of the candidate. The course involves a canoe trip stressing organisation, safety, leadership and risk and crisis management.”

PREREQUISITES:


SAFETY:
Review of previous safety items
Swimming and treading water
Artificial respiration using a canoe
Canoe over canoe rescue
Self rescue
Line toss and rescue
Communications
 

SKILLS:
Review of previous skills items
Canoeing
Food and menu planning
Navigation
Knots, hitches, lashings, and ropes
Portaging
Lining, tracking, and wading
Canoe trip

THEORY
Review of previous theory items
Canoeing History
Canoe design and construction
Canoe repair and maintenance
Trip planning, reporting, and assessment
Trip leadership
Risk management
Crisis management
Wilderness First Aid
Weather interpretation


Appendix G


OVERVIEW OF ORCA FLATWATER INSTRUCTOR

The purpose of the Basic Instructors Course is to provide a standard provincial certification of competence in the instruction and administration of the ORCA Basic Level Courses

PREREQUISITES:

SAFETY
Safety Review
Swimming and treading water
Artificial respiration
Retrieving a swamped canoe
Canoe over canoe rescue
Reaching assist and throw line
 

SKILLS
Skills review
Pivots
Sideward displacement
Circles
Reverse & forward straight lines
Landings
Triangular course in wind

THEORY
Theory review
Canoeing heritage
Selection & care of equipment
Equipment knowledge
Canoe design and construction
Canoeing dynamics
Canoeing first-aid
Canoeing resources
 

TEACHING SKILLS
Preparing for teaching
Presentation skills and techniques
Evaluation


For more information on the Ontario Recreational Canoeing Association or the CRCA click away!


Appendix H


National Lifesaving Service:

National Lifeguard - Pool Option

Prerequisite – 16 years of age, Bronze Cross.
Lifeguard theory & practice: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles and techniques of lifeguarding included in this award. Answer questions on the test items in this award drawn from the contents of Alert: lifeguarding in action.

Resuscitation techniques:
 Demonstrate appropriate first aid care to victims suffering:


Lifeguarding techniques:
 Demonstrate ability to utilize effectively the following techniques of aquatic supervision.


Lifeguarding skills:
 Demonstrate effective management of a minimum of 2 of the following selected by the Examiner:


First aid skills:


Fitness:
 Describe components of fitness, and relate fitness to the ability to effectively carry out lifeguarding tasks.


Use of equipment:
 Describe how, when and why specialized equipment is used in lifeguarding and demonstrate competence with basic equipment.

Lifeguarding situations:
 Respond to an emergency as a single lifeguard or as a member of a lifeguard team; correctly assess and resolve the situation.



National Lifeguard – Pool Option
Pool analysis: Through practical activities wherever possible, demonstrate an understanding of:


Entries and removals:
 Demonstrate entries and removals appropriate for a pool.

Specialized rescues:
Demonstrate appropriate rescue technique for a specific pool feature (e.g., deep water, bulkhead, shallow steps, wading pool whirlpool, heights).



National Lifeguard – Waterpark Option

Waterpark analysis: Through practical activities wherever possible, demonstrate an understanding of:


Waterpark supervision and patrol:
Describe methods and limitations of waterpark supervision and demonstrate appropriate set-up for specific facility and number of staff.

Waterslide rescue:
Perform an effective rescue of a victim in a water slide flume.

Specialized rescues:
Demonstrate appropriate rescue technique for a specific waterpark feature (e.g., deep water, shallow steps, wading pool whirlpool, heights).

Entries and removals:
Demonstrate entries and removals appropriate to a wave pool, slides, catch basins or other park apparatus.

Search:
 Carry out an effect search of a waterpark.

Physical standard:
Run 200m, enter wave pool, swim 50m contact victim approximately equal to rescuer’s weight; control carry to shallow water in 5-6 minutes.



National Lifeguard – Surf Option
Surf beach analysis:
Through practical activities wherever possible, demonstrate an understanding of how to analyze a surf beach and how this analysis affects lifeguarding.

Surf beach supervision:
Describe methods and limitations of supervision of surf beaches and demonstrate appropriate set-up for specific facility conditions and number of staff provided.

Use of rescue craft:
Demonstrate effective use of a) paddleboard and b) boat or other rescue equipment in calm and surf conditions and describe uses of rescue craft.

Skin diving skills:
Demonstrate use of skin diving skills and equipment.

Surf rescue:
Recover a victim in surf conditions; describe modifications of techniques required for waves.

Entries and removals:
Demonstrate entries and removals appropriate to a beach in clam and surf conditions.

Search:
Carry out an effective search of a defined waterfront area.

Physical standard:
Run with rescue aid 200m, enter water, swim head-up approach 100m to recover victim approximately equal to rescuer’s weight; tow or carry 100m to shore in 6-8 minutes depending on water conditions


Appendix I

WILDERNESS FIRST AID:
This Information taken from Wilderness Medical Associates one of many companies offereing WFA


Wilderness First Aid
8 - 24 Hours

· PREREQUISITE
Students must be at least 16 years of age to participate in this course. 16 and 17 year olds must have proof of parental consent.

· CLASS FORMAT
Varies from 8 to 24 hours over 1 to 3 days.
Mornings are devoted to lectures and exams.
Afternoons are devoted to practical hands-on sessions and videotaped simulations*.
Evenings are reserved for study and assignments.
* Expect one or two emergency rescue simulations with made-up victims and stage blood.

· CONTENT
Topics include patient assessment, body systems, equipment improvisation, trauma, environmental medicine, toxins, backcountry medicine, and wilderness rescue.



Wilderness Advanced First Aid course
36 Hours

· PREREQUISITE
Students must be at least 16 years old to participate in this course. 16 and 17 year olds must provide written proof of parental consent.

· CERTIFICATIONS AVAILABLE
All students who successfully complete the WAFA course will receive a certification card from Wilderness Medical Associates. This certification remains valid for three years. A two year American Heart Association "Heartsaver" certification is included. You must keep the CPR certification valid for the WAFA to be valid.

The WAFA may be used as a recertification option for those with a current Wilderness First Responder or Wilderness EMT certification. Contact the Wilderness Medical Associates office for more details. The Wilderness Medical Associates WAFA course meets or exceeds all requirements of other similarly houred courses (i.e. Red Cross Responding to Emergencies, etc.).
Wilderness Medical Associates' WAFA course meets or exceeds all requirements of other similarly named courses (ie. Red Cross Advanced First Aid).

· CLASS FORMAT
36 hours over 4 days.
Mornings are devoted to lectures and exams.
Afternoons are devoted to practical hands-on sessions and video taped simulations*.
Evenings are reserved for study and assignments.
* Expect one or two rescue simulations with made-up victims and stage blood that will be video taped for enhanced learning.

· CONTENT
Topics include patient assessment, body systems, equipment improvisation, trauma, environmental medicine, toxins, backcountry medicine, some wilderness protocols and wilderness rescue.



Wilderness First Responder
72 Hours
Course Fact Sheet

· PREREQUISITE
Students must be at least 16 years of age to participate in this course. 16 and 17 year olds must have proof of parental consent.

· CERTIFICATIONS AVAILABLE
All students who successfully complete the WFR course will receive a certification card from Wilderness Medical Associates. This certification remains valid for three years, conditional upon you maintaining a valid BLS-CPR certification. A two year American Heart Association "Healthcare Provider" certification is included with this course.

The Wilderness Medical Associates WFR course meets or exceeds all requirements of other similarly named courses (i.e. DOT First Responder).  Within three years, graduates may recertify by way of a 16 hour Recertification course, a 36 hour Wilderness Advanced First Aid course, or a 16 hour Wilderness First Aid course in conjunction with a Recertification Authorization Package.
(The recertification package is an additional $25.95 above the cost of the WFA course. Please call the Wilderness Medical Associates office for details.)

· CLASS FORMAT
72 hours, over 8 days. The sponsor may add days off.
Mornings are devoted to lectures and exams.
Afternoons are devoted to practical hands-on sessions and video taped simulations*.
Evenings are reserved for study and assignments.
* Expect two or three emergency rescue simulations with made-up victims and stage blood that will be video-taped for enhanced learning.

· CONTENT
Topics include patient assessment, body systems, equipment improvisation, trauma, environmental medicine, toxins, backcountry medicine, and wilderness rescue.



Appendix J

SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE:

This is the questionnaire which was sent out via email.

To: organization
From: Steve Tripp

I am beginning research to find out what the "Industry Standard" is for trippers. I realize some organizations want their guides to have very high qualifications like:

But others are below the Ontario Camping Association benchmark... What is the standard for your organization?

_____________________________________________________

Some additional questions to consider, but not asked are:

1. How many years of experience do your trippers have?
2. What is the guide/participant ratio?
3. What are the evacuation procedures and other emergency procedures?
4. Do trippers work in pairs on a trip, or take out trips alone?


Other useful links and related sites.

Princeton Education Program

April 26,2002.